Low-cost loans for farmers and entrepeneurs. Nationalization of major agricultural and mining producers. Full land surveys to ensure proper taxation. Government-sponsored quality control in factories.
A more practical and science-focused curriculum. These may seem like progressive reforms today, but the debate over them goes back to the Song Dynasty of China At the time, China was a center of monetary, military, and scientific advancement. During this dynasty, and specifically during the period in which the aforementioned reforms were introduced, paper money, movable type printing, the hydraulic clock, firearms, and the magnetic compass were invented.
These reforms were eventually suppressed by court conservatives, but what if they had not been? What if science had continued to advance, and what if China had broken through into industrial revolution?
The point of divergence is the early death of Emperor Shenzong, who favored the New Policy reforms described above. In history, he died suddenly at age 30 in In this timeline, he reigns until in line with the life spans of his immediate ancestors note: unless otherwise specified, everything beyond this point is in the alternate timeline.
At this point, his son, Emperor Zhezong, took over without a period of regency during which, in history, his regent suppressed the New Policy. During his reign, the New Policy became established in the system of Neo-Confucianism. In , Kai Yuehan, a provincial engineer, building on the discoveries of Su Song, made a breakthrough: a water wheel that could spin silk thread. The imperial court immediately recognized the value of Kai's invention and appointed Kai head of the Ministry of Works.
Kai's invention thus spread throughout China and remained largely unchanged until the Yellow River flooded in A massive attack on the state of Jin was thus conducted, and succeeded in capturing all but the Northeasternmost Jin provinces. The ancient cities of Kaifeng and Chang'an were captured, and works built on the river.
Several water-wheel factories were thus left dry when the river flooded and changed course. Natural gas wells and heating facilities were built near the abandoned factories A. The Muslim inventor Ma Fang soon observed that the steam rising out of these heating plants would turn water wheels.
He thus devised a machine that would turn a water wheel with steam. It discussed a great variety of subjects, such as astronomy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, anatomy, geology, cartography, archeology, atmospheric phenomena, medicine, agronomy, engineering, military affairs, laws, literature, history, music and fine arts. This masterpiece encyclopedia was authored by Shen Kuo , a great scientist, scholar and statesman in the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty His talent extended into nearly every field of learning. Shen was known as a gifted mathematician, astronomer, geologist, zoologist, botanist, agronomist, archaeologist, engineer and inventor.
He was also a famous poet and musician.
In addition, he served as a high-ranking government official in many positions, including diplomat, finance minister and head of the Imperial Department of Astronomy. However, among these diverse talents, Shen was above all a great scientific polymath. The British sinologist, historian and biochemist Joseph Needham praised Shen as "one of the greatest scientific minds in the Chinese history.
When he was young, Shen traveled to many parts of the country and studied the plants, fossils, rivers, mountains, weather, local engineering projects and astronomical phenomena. He also conducted numerous experiments to test his discoveries and theories. For example, he spent more than three years and drew more than sketches before he finally came up with the concept of true north.
About the title, he is quoted as saying: "Because I had only my writing brush and ink slab to converse with, I call it Brush Talks. The battery pioneer "To sustain our lifestyle on this planet, we need to return to a sustainable energy supply: Which is energy delivered to us by the sun. The Mongols continued to raid deep into China, at one point sacking Beijing, but in , the Army caught up to them. Nationalization of major agricultural and mining producers. Shen also wrote that since petrified bamboos were found underground in a climatic area where they had never been known to be grown, the climate there must have shifted geographically over time. The Crow Terrace Poetry Trial , of Barnhart, Richard.
He noted that compasses pointed to the magnetic north pole, not true north. The rest of the world only began to know of this more than years later. After his retirement, Shen settled down in a garden estate beside a rivulet and named it "Dream Brook.
They explore a wide range of scientific topics and explain many of Shen's discoveries, inventions and theories, as well as natural and technological phenomena. For instance, Shen's versatility saw him include a detailed description of movable type printing technology invented by his contemporary Bi Sheng around , plus point out the different functions of human's pharynx and larynx.
Shen was way ahead of his time in many fields. Apart from creating the concept of true north, he hypothesized that land was formed by the erosion of mountains and deposition of silt, after observing fossils he discovered in a mountain range in northwest China.