Otherwise, the Results and Discussion section should be in separate or defined sections or chapters. Start with a brief introduction of this chapter. Results : answers to the research questions which are generated from the collected data. Your opinion should not be included when presenting the results. Descriptive or frequency statistical results of all variables must be reported first before specific statistical tests e. For instance, the profile of participants or respondents, or characteristics of the sample is presented first if available.
Specific quotes from interviews must be presented under a specific theme or sub-theme in the same way results from focus group discussions are reported. When reporting results from observations, present the conversation, behavior or condition you have noticed first.
Then, write your comments. Discussion : explains the meaning of the results presented in specific sections and links them to previous research studies. It explains why the findings are weak, strong or significant, and their limitations. A further review of the literature might be required to enhance the discussion of results. End each chapter with a summary. Introduce this chapter.
First, refer back to the problem or topic that you have presented in Chapter 1 and what you hoped to achieve at the beginning of the research. The research questions you tried to answer must also be reviewed in this chapter as well as your hypotheses, if applicable. It is important to also reexamine the methodology followed in the research and show how the objectives were achieved or were not achieved with the application of different methods and techniques. End this chapter with some reflections and final words. When all the chapters have been finalized, you are now ready to prepare the abstract.
It is written in the form of a summary, describing briefly the research problem, the aims of the research, the methods used to achieve them, and the main findings and conclusions. Although the abstract is very short approximately paragraphs , it can be considered as the most significant part of your thesis or dissertation. The abstract provides a general impression of what your research is about, and allows other researchers to have a broad understanding of your work.
When applying for conferences, your abstract is assessed by an organizing committee for relevance and quality. Make sure to create an impact—write an impressive abstract. Language Center Asian Institute of Technology. Search Search. Points to keep in mind: Research is a process which involves a lot of thinking, planning and writing. Take note of the following verb tenses when writing your chapters: Introduction Chapter 1 Simple present and future tense Literature Review Chapter 2 Present but mostly past Methodology Chapter 3 Present but mostly future Your advisor is your ally.
Subheadings and what they mean: Background — What is the context of this problem? In what situation or environment can it be observed? Provide sufficient information for the readers to understand the topic you are researching about. Statement of the Problem — What is it that we do not know? What is the gap in our knowledge this research will fill?
What needs to be improved? Rationale or Justification of the Study — Why is this research important?
Who will benefit? Why do we need to know this? Research Questions — W hat is it that you want to find out? Objectives — What steps will the researcher take to try and fill this gap or improve the situation? Relate them to the research problem. Break down a general objective into minor, connected parts specific objectives. Specific objectives should systematically address the different research questions, and specify what you will do in your study, where and for what purpose.
Is there any aspect of the problem the researcher will not discuss? Assumptions — In considering the methods, model, formulation or approach, are there important conditions or states that the researcher takes to be true? The research problem is a part of the conceptual framework that you will build based on the existing theories and research. The Literature Review In this chapter and in the succeeding chapters of your thesis or dissertation , you need to write an introductory paragraph or paragraphs that show the following: 1.
Study area Sampling Methods of data collection —primary and secondary data Variables Measurements and scaling techniques Processing and data analysis Ethical considerations Timeline Research budget The last section is the Chapter Summary. The Final Chapters of your Thesis At this stage, you have already collected as much data as you can and are ready to process and analyze such a huge amount of information. Abstract When all the chapters have been finalized, you are now ready to prepare the abstract.
Chapter 1. Simple present and future tense. Literature Review.
Customary Parts of an Education Research Paper introduction states the main research problem and thesis argument. Research is a process which involves a lot of thinking, planning and writing. It is advisable to think about topics that interest you at the beginning of your program .
Chapter 2. Present but mostly past.
Chapter 3. Verb Tense. Title page. Table of Contents. List of Abbreviations. List of Tables and Figures. Chapter I.
Come up with individual approaches to forming the main claim! The majority of academic assignments look for the persuasive thesis. A typical PhD thesis introduction follows the following format:. More Notices. See all hours.
Chapter II. Chapter III. Results and Discussion. The order of sections can also vary between fields and countries. For example, some universities advise that the conclusion should always come before the discussion. The acknowledgements section is usually optional, and gives space for you to thank everyone who helped you in writing your dissertation. This might include your supervisors, participants in your research, and friends or family who supported you. The abstract is a short summary of your dissertation, usually about words long.
In the abstract, make sure to:. In the table of contents, list all of your chapters and subheadings and their page numbers. The dissertation contents page gives the reader an overview of your structure and helps easily navigate the document. All parts of your dissertation should be included in the table of contents, including the appendices.
You can generate a table of contents automatically in Word if you used heading styles. If you have used a lot of tables and figures in your dissertation, you should itemize them in a numbered list.
You can automatically generate this list using the Insert Caption feature in Word. If you have used a lot of abbreviations in your dissertation, you can include them in an alphabetized list of abbreviations so that the reader can easily look up their meanings. If you have used a lot of highly specialized terms that will not be familiar to your reader, it might be a good idea to include a glossary. List the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a brief description or definition.
The introduction should:. Everything in the introduction should be clear, engaging, and relevant to your research. By the end, the reader should understand the what , why and how of your research. Before you start on your research, you should have conducted a literature review to gain a thorough understanding of the academic work that already exists on your topic.